CÁC CẤP SO SÁNH
|Các cấp so sánh||Công thức||Ví dụ|
|Các cấp So sánh bằng (as…as)||Thể khẳng định:|
S1 + V + as + adj/adv + as + S2 + V
|She is as beautiful as her mother.|
She learns as well as her sister does.
|Thể phủ định:|
S1 + V(phủ định) + as/so + adj/adv + as + S2 + V
|This exercise is not as/ so difficult as I think (it is).|
He doesn’t study as/so hard as I do/me.
|Với danh từ đếm được:|
S1 + V + as many/few + N(sô’ nhiều) + as + S2 + V
|We have as few problems to solve as yesterday.|
|Với danh từ không đếm được:|
SI + V + as much/ little + N(không đếm được) + as + S2+ V
|I don’t have as much money as you do.|
|So sánh gấp nhiều lần:|
S + V + multiple numbers + as + much/ many/ adj + (N) + as + N/ pronoun
* Multiple numbers là những số như half/ twice/ 3,4,5…times; Phân số; Phần trăm.
|In many countries in the world with the same job, women only get 40 – 50% as much as salary as men.|
|Các cấp So sánh hơn (adj-er/ more…than)||Thế nào là tính từ/ trạng từ ngắn?|
Tính từ/ trạng từ ngắn là những tính từ/ trạng từ có 1 âm tiết như: big (to), small (nhỏ), hot (nóng), cold (lạnh), thin (gầy), fat (béo),….và có 2 âm tiết tận cùng là 1 trong 5 đuôi sau:
– y: happy (hạnh phúc), easy (dễ dàng), early (sớm), heavy (nặng), lazy (lười biếng)…
– er: clever (thông minh, lanh lợi).
– le: single (độc thân), simple (đơn giản).
– ow: narrow (hẹp).
– et: quiet (yên tĩnh).
Lưu ý: những tính từ / trạng từ 2 âm tiết tận cùng là đuôi -y chỉ được coi là tính từ/ trạng từ ngắn khi bản thân nó có đuôi -y.
lovely (đáng yêu) là tính từ dài vì nó được cấu tạo bởi (love + ly => lovely).
quickly (nhanh) là trạng từ dài vì nó được cấu tạo bởi (quick + ly => quickly).
Thế nào là tính từ/ trạng từ dài?
Tính từ/ trạng từ dài là những tính từ/ trạng từ có từ 2 âm tiết trở lên nhưng không phải 1 trong 5 đuôi kể trên, như: beautiful (xinh đẹp), handsome (đẹp trai), intelligent (thông minh), hard-working (chăm chỉ)
|so sánh hơn với tính từ và trạng từ ngắn:|
S1 + V + adj/adv + er + than + S2 + V
|She looks happier than (she did) yesterday.|
|so sánh hơn với tính từ và trạng từ dài:|
S1 + V + more + adj/adv + than + S2 + V
|She is more beautiful than her sister.|
|So sánh hơn với danh từ:|
S1 + V + more + N + than + S2+ V
|She has more money than me.|
|Các cấp So sánh nhất (the adj- est/most + adj)||Với tính từ và trạng từ ngắn:|
S + V + the + adj/adv + est + (N) + ….
|He is the tallest (student) in my class.|
|Với tính từ và trạng từ dài:|
S + V + the + most + adj/adv + (N) +…
|My mother is the most beautiful (woman) in the world.|
|Với danh từ:|
S + V + the + most + N + ….
|He is a billionaire. He has the most money.|
|Các cấp so sánh Ngoại lệ||Tính từ/ trạng từ||Nghĩa||Dạng so sánh hơn||Dạng so sánh nhất|
|good/well||tốt, giỏi||better||the best|
|bad||tệ, tồi, dốt||worse||the worst|
|Các cấp So sánh lũy tiến|
|Với tính từ ngắn: Adj + er + and + adj + er||The summer is coming. It gets hotter and hotter.|
|Với tính từ dài: more/less and more/less + adj||She is more and more attractive.|
|Với danh từ: more and more + N||There are more and more people moving to big cities to look for jobs.|
|Các cấp So sánh đồng tiến|
(càng… thì càng)
|The + (so sánh hơn) adj/ adv+S + V, the (so sánh hơn) adj/adv + S + V|
|The more difficult the exercise is, the more interesting it is.|
BÀI TẬP CÁC CẤP SO SÁNH ÁP DỤNG
1. Joe is more hard-working than his brother.
A. Joe is not as hard-working as his brother.
B. Joe’s brother is not as hard-working as he is.
C. Joe is less hard-working than his brother.
D. Joe’s brother is more hard-working than he is.
2. Many teenagers like facebooking more than doing sport.
A. Many teenagers like doing sport as much as Facebooking.
B. Many teenagers don’t like Facebooking as much as doing sport,
C. Many teenagers like doing sport more than Facebooking.
D. Many teenagers don’t like doing sport as much as Facebooking.
3. Paul likes reading comic books more than watching cartoons.
A. Paul doesn’t like watching cartoons as much as reading comic books.
B. Paul likes watching cartoons as much as reading comic books.
C. Paul likes watching cartoons more than reading comic books.
D. Paul doesn’t like reading comic books as much as watching cartoons.
4. I like reading books more than surfing the Internet.
A. I like surfing the Internet more than reading book.
B. I like reading book less than surfing the Internet.
C. I don’t like reading book as much as surfing the Internet.
D. I don’t like surfing the Internet as much as reading books.
5. My father likes reading newspaper more than watching TV.
A. My father doesn’t like reading newspaper as much as watching TV.
B. My father likes watching TV as much as reading newspaper.
C. My father doesn’t like watching TV as much as reading newspaper.
D. My father likes watching TV more than reading newspaper.
6. In Vietnam, football is more popular than basketball.
A. In Vietnam, basketball is not as popular as football.
B. In Vietnam, basketball is more popular than football.
C. In Vietnam, football is not as popular as basketball.
D. In Vietnam, football is as popular as basketball.
7. My boss works better when he’s pressed for time.
A. The more time my boss has, the better he works.
B. The less time my boss has, he works better.
C. The less time my boss has, the better he works.
D. The less time my boss has, he works the better.
8. Derek is quite a bit more adventurous than his sister, Annabelle.
A. Annabelle is considerable more adventurous than her brother, Derek.
B. Annabelle isn’t as nearly adventurous as her brother, Derek.
C. Derek isn’t so nearly adventurous as his sister, Annabelle.
D. Annabelle isn’t nearly as adventurous as her brother, Derek.
9. The likelihood of suffering a heart attack rises as one becomes increasingly obese.
A. Anyone who is obese is likely to experience a heart attack at any time.
B. Obesity results in only a slight increase in the probability of having a heart attack.
C. The more obese one is, the higher the chances for a heart attack become.
D. Heart attacks are happening more and more often, and most of the sufferers are obese.
10. The American are less formal in addressing their bosses than the South Korean.
A. The South Korean are less formal in addressing their bosses than the American.
B. Both the American and the South Korean have the same formality in addressing their bosses.
C. The South Korean are more informal in addressing their bosses than the American.
D. The South Korean are more formal in addressing their bosses than the American.
11. Nothing is more precious than happiness and health.
A. Happiness and health are the most precious things.
B. Happiness is more precious than health.
C. Health is more precious than happiness.
D. Happiness and health are more and more precious.
12. I’ve never seen such a nice bouquet of wedding flowers.
A. This bouquet of wedding flowers is the nicest that I’ve ever made.
B. This is the nicest bouquet of wedding flowers that I’ve ever seen.
C. I’ve never seen the nicest bouquet of wedding flowers so far.
D. Nothing I’ve seen is nicer than this bouquet of wedding flowers.
13. Ice-hockey is one of the most popular sports in Russia.
A. In Russia, ice-hockey is more popular than any other sports.
B. In Russia, no sport is more popular than ice-hockey.
C. In Russia, no sport is less popular than ice-hockey.
D. In Russia, one of the most popular sports is ice-hockey.
14. Tet holiday is the most interesting Vietnamese traditional festival that he’s ever attended.
A. Tet holiday is more interesting than the Vietnamese traditional festival that he’s ever attended.
B. He has never attended a more interesting Vietnamese traditional festival than Tet holiday.
C. He has attended many interesting Vietnamese traditional festival including Tet holiday.
D. Tet holiday is one of the most interesting Vietnamese traditional festival he’s ever attended.
15. There are more superstitious beliefs in Eastern countries than in Western ones.
A. Western countries don’t have fewer superstitious beliefs than Eastern ones.
B. Eastern countries have more superstitious beliefs than Western ones.
C. Eastern and Western countries have many more superstitious beliefs.
D. More superstitious beliefs exist in Western countries than in Eastern ones.
16. Pho (rice noodles) is believed to be the most typical food in Viet Nam.
A. It is believed that Pho (rice noodles] is the most typical food in Viet Nam.
B. A more typical food than Pho (rice noodles] is believed in Viet Nam.
C. I believe that Viet Nam has the most typical food like Pho (rice noodles].
D. No food in Viet Nam is less typical than Pho (rice noodles].
17. I have never read a better book about cultural diversity than I have ever read.
A. This book is a good book about cultural diversity I have ever read.
B. This is the best book about cultural diversity I have ever read.
C. This book is as good as the one about cultural diversity I have ever read.
D. The book about cultural diversity I have ever read isn’t better than this one.
18. Lee talks to people more politely than Ben.
A. Ben doesn’t talk to people as politely as Lee.
B. Ben doesn’t talk to people politely as Lee.
C. Ben doesn’t talk to people more politely than Lee.
D. Ben doesn’t talk to people less politely than Lee.
19. No student in my class can run as fast as Jack.
A. Jack is faster than no student in my class.
B. Jack is the fastest runner in my class.
C. All students in my class don’t run faster than Jack.
D. No student in my class runs fast as Jack.
20. This question is harder than the last one.
A. The last question is not difficult.
B. This question is the most difficult one.
C. The last question is difficult but this one is more difficult.
D. This question is hard but the last one is not.
21. As Elton John became more famous, it was more difficult for him to avoid reporters.
A. The most famous Elton John became, the more difficult for him to avoid reporters.
B. The more famous Elton John became, the more difficult it was for him to avoid reporters.
C. The more famous Elton John had become, the more difficult for him to avoid reporters.
D. The more Elton John became famous, the more difficult for him to avoid reporters.
22. We cut down many forests. The Earth becomes hot.
A. The more forests we cut down, the hotter the Earth becomes.
B. The more we cut down forests, the hotter the Earth becomes.
C. The more forests we cut down, the Earth becomes hotter.
D. The more we cut down forests, the Earth becomes hotter.
23. As he earned more money, Mike bought more clothes.
A. When Mike earned a lot of money, he bought more and more clothes.
B. The more money Mike earned, the better clothes he bought.
C. The more money Mike earned, the best clothes he bought.
D. The more money Mike earned, the more clothes he bought.
24. Jupiter is bigger than all the other planets in the solar system.
A. No other planets in the solar system is as big as Jupiter.
B. Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system.
C. All other planets in the solar system are not so big that Jupiter.
D. Among the planets in the solar system, Jupiter is the biggest of all.
25. No other student in his class is as successful as Pat.
A. Pat succeeded in beating all other students in his class.
B. Pat is the most successful student in his class.
C. His class is less successful than Pat is.
D. The more successful his class is, the more success Pat gets.